Are 100 push-ups, 100 bicep curls, 100 squats, and 3 sets of 2-minute planks every day except Sunday enough to build muscle for beginners?
Not particularly. First, doing so many repetitions is just a waste of time if you're trying to "build muscle". That is, if by "building muscle" you mean getting bigger. High repetitions of "free" exercises will not accomplish that.
In fact, all you'll accomplish is to increase your endurance in those particular exercises.
In order to "build muscle", you need resistance, and progressive resistance at that. More resistance as you get stronger.
By far the most efficient way to build muscle is to lift weights.
Also, your little program there is neglecting a whole bunch of muscle groups. Instead of inventing your own rather idiosyncratic program, why not simply adopt a well-designed, proven program such as people have been following for many years with great success.
Like the beginner's bodybuilding course from Bodybuilding.com:
If you're not able to go to a gym or invest in your own weight set, then a good, full-body calisthenic/bodyweight program is available from numbers of sources on the web.