Are the Sumerians, Mesopotamia, Babylonians, Assyrians, Akkadians, and Chaldeans the same?
Mesopotamia is a geographical term meaning 'the land between the rivers', referring to the Tigris and Euphrates. Nowadays it's mostly in Iraq. Five thousand years ago, it was the richest and most heavily-populated region of the world.
The other names you list are all nations or empires which ruled in the region of Mesopotamia at one time or another, over a period of nearly 3,000 years.
Mesopotamia is a term that describes the geographical region, the others are terms for different populations that lived in different places and times in the mesopotamian region. The same terms also indicate their languages.
It is worth highlithing that from the end of the XIX century on, scholars used the terms to indicate the most ancient civilizations they knew of at the moment. So when they were deciphering the assyrian language they though that assyrians were the oldest cyvilization of the region, then they discovered the babylonian sources, but it took a relatively long time to identify assyrian and babylonian as 2 different dialects of what seemed the ‘mother language', akkadian.
Then, when they found different cuneiform writings that made no sense with the assyrian or babylonian phonemic transliteration, some scholars still implemented the term ‘assyrian' until they discovered the name for it in an akkadian tablet. The tablet mentionned the people of ‘shumer', so they called their language ‘shumerian'.
Aso, in the Bible the term ‘Chaldean' is used to describe a generic semitic tribe living in mesopotamia; we have a mention for Abraham coming from "Ur of the Chaldeans", and we know Ur was a sumerian city, later inhabited by akkadians
These people are all Mesopotamians, but they come from different regions and belonged to Different ethnic groups
This is Mesopotamia:
Mesopotamians are people who lived in Mesopotamia; all of the other groups mentioned did live in that region of the world (between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers) so Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Akkadians, and Chaldeans are also all Mesopotamians.
However, those other groups were different cultures that rose and fell at different times, occasionally in direct conflict with one another.