Can I exercise every day whenever I want to in order to lose weight?
Sure you can! It just won't help you lose much weight. Not 50 jumping jacks or some sit-ups or squats. That's not nearly enough to make a significant contribution to weight loss.
An hour of moderate cardio, or a half hour of intense cardio, five or more days per week can help you lose about a pound a week - if, and only if, you also manage your diet properly. A few minutes of calisthenics, a few times a day, won't even get you a tenth of that. It won't elevate your heart rate enough for long enough, and just doesn't burn enough calories to make a significant difference.
If you want to lose weight, you'll have to make a real commitment.