Do Muslims believe Satan exists?
Yes, though we're generally told not to concern ourselves too much with the whole thing. Whoever/whatever Satan is, it is something which has virtually no power over us, except to suggest a thought or a whim - what we call "whispers". We're simply told to ignore unwholesome thoughts and temptations, and to mention God's name or do a good deed instead to keep them at bay.
Satan (shaytan) is mentioned by name several times (68) in the Quran. Though it sometimes seems to refer to one particular creature called Satan (such as in verses telling the story of how Satan refused to bow to Adam after his creation, or how Satan whispered to Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit), in other verses it becomes clear that Satan refers to a group, a kind of creature.
And of the people is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge and follows every rebellious devil. Quran 22:3
It's possible that there is one particular Satan in the group who was there when Adam was created or who whispered to Adam and Eve about the fruit. It's also possible that it was the entire group that is being referenced in these verses. In any case, the question is irrelevant.
You can pick up a lot about what Satan is like from the text. Here are some examples.
But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, "Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time." Quran 2:36
O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy. Quran 2:168
Indeed, those of you who turned back on the day the two armies met, it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned. But Allah has already forgiven them. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing. Quran 3:155
That is only Satan who frightens [you] of his supporters. So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are [indeed] believers. Quran 3:175
Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghut, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray. Quran 4:60
"... And I will mislead them, and I will arouse in them [sinful] desires, and I will command them so they will slit the ears of cattle, and I will command them so they will change the creation of Allah." And whoever takes Satan as an ally instead of Allah has certainly sustained a clear loss. Quran 4:119
Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion. Quran 4:120
Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist? Quran 5:91
Then why, when Our punishment came to them, did they not humble themselves? But their hearts became hardened, and Satan made attractive to them that which they were doing. Quran 6:43
O my father, do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan has ever been, to the Most Merciful, disobedient. Quran 19:44
In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most merciful.
Yes, Satan diobeyed Allah's order.
Surah Al baqra
34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.'' And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)
Honoring Adam when the Angels prostrated before Him
This Ayah mentions the great honor that Allah granted Adam, and Allah reminded Adam's offspring of this fact. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, as this Ayah and many Hadiths testify, such as the Hadith about the intercession that we discussed. There is a Hadith about the supplication of Musa, "O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself to be thrown out of Paradise.'' When Musa met Adam, he said to him, "Are you Adam whom Allah created with His Own Hands, blew life into and commanded the angels to prostrate before'' Iblis was among Those ordered to prostrate before Adam, although He was not an Angel
When Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was included in this command. Although Iblis was not an angel, he was trying - and pretending - to imitate the angels' behavior and deeds, and this is why he was also included in the command to the angels to prostrate before Adam. Satan was criticized for defying that command. as we will explain with detail, Allah willing, when we mention the Tafsir of Allah's statement,
﴿إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ﴾
(Except Iblis (Satan). He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord.) (18:50)
Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Before he undertook the path of sin, Iblis was with the angels and was called `Azazil.' He was among the residents of the earth and was one of the most active worshippers and knowledgeable persons among the angels. This fact caused him to be arrogant. Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.''34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.'' And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)
Ibn Jarir said, "The devils of every creation are the mischievous among them. There are both human devils and Jinn devils. Allah said,
﴿وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نِبِىٍّ عَدُوّاً شَيَـطِينَ الإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِى بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُوراً﴾
(And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies ـ Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of deception)) (6:112).
Yes, Muslims believe in the shayateen, but they do not believe shayateen are angels. Muslims believe in jinn which are creatures made from smokeless fire and have free will (some righteous, some unrighteous).
61.And [mention] when We said to the angles, "Prostrate to Adam," and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He said, "Should I prostrate to one You created from clay?" 62. [Iblees] said, "Do You see this one whom You have honored above me? If You delay me until the Day of Resurrection, I will surely destroy his descendants, except for a few." 63. [ Allah ] said, "Go, for whoever of them follows you, indeed Hell will be the recompense of you - an ample recompense. 64. And incite [to senselessness] whoever you can among them with your voice and assault them with your horses and foot soldiers and become a partner in their wealth and their children and promise them." But Satan does not promise them except delusion. 65. Indeed, over My [believing] servants there is for you no authority. And sufficient is your Lord as Disposer of affairs. 70:61–65.
11. And We have certainly created you, [O Mankind], and given you [human] form. Then We said to the angels, "Prostrate to Adam"; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He was not of those who prostrated. 12.[ Allah ] said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" [Satan] said, "I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay."13. [ Allah ] said, "Descend from Paradise, for it is not for you to be arrogant therein. So get out; indeed, you are of the debased. 14.[Satan] said, "Reprieve me until the Day they are resurrected." 15. [ Allah ] said, "Indeed, you are of those reprieved." 16. [Satan] said, "Because You have put me in error, I will surely sit in wait for them on Your straight path. 17. Then I will come to them from before them and from behind them and on their right and on their left, and You will not find most of them grateful [to You]."18. [ Allah ] said, "Get out of Paradise, reproached and expelled. Whoever follows you among them - I will surely fill Hell with you, all together." 7:11–15.
And the answer is "yes" because in various Ayat of holy book "Quran" Allah describes Satan & tell muslim about their clear enemy who stray humans from the right path..
As Allah mentioned in Quran
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ کُلُوۡا مِمَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ حَلٰلًا طَیِّبًا ۫ ۖوَّ لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَکُمۡ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۶۸﴾اِنَّمَا یَاۡمُرُکُمۡ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ وَ الۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡا عَلَی اللّٰہِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۹﴾
O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.He only orders you to evil and immorality and to say about Allah what you do not know. (Surah#2,Ayat#168,169)
Allah mentioned Satan many times & tell people that he is the clear enemy of all mankind due to:
Mentioned in (Surah 2, Ayat#34)
وَ اِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕ اَبٰی وَ اسۡتَکۡبَرَ ٭۫ وَ کَانَ مِنَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۳۴﴾
And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam"; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.
And how he misguided prophet Adam the first human on the phase of Earth as mentioned by Allah.
وَ قُلۡنَا یٰۤاٰدَمُ اسۡکُنۡ اَنۡتَ وَ زَوۡجُکَ الۡجَنَّۃَ وَ کُلَا مِنۡہَا رَغَدًا حَیۡثُ شِئۡتُمَا ۪ وَ لَا تَقۡرَبَا ہٰذِہِ الشَّجَرَۃَ فَتَکُوۡنَا مِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾فَاَزَلَّہُمَا الشَّیۡطٰنُ عَنۡہَا فَاَخۡرَجَہُمَا مِمَّا کَانَا فِیۡہِ ۪ وَ قُلۡنَا اہۡبِطُوۡا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ وَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّ مَتَاعٌ اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۳۶﴾
And We said, "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers." But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, "Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time."
(Surah 2 Ayat#35,36)
Yes. Muslims believe that Satan is the Most dangerous enemy of human Who hates human being for lossing its superiority to humankind. That's why satan promissed Allah thatche will take as many people as he can to the hellfire.
Yes, almost half of the Quran (Islamic book) is the Bible and Torah, whatever christians believe is almost identicle when it comes to basic beliefs. Jews, christians and muslims all believe in Satan as the fallen angel.