Does one need to get shots before traveling to India?
The only mandatory requirement is that you take Yellow Fever vaccinations if you are travelling from South America or some African countries.
Other vaccines, which are advisable are against typhoid and hepatitis. It is also not a bad idea to get vaccinated against rabies. Make sure that you have taken all TB vaccinations as a child. Else consult your GP before your India trip.
When in India, drink only bottled water. Do not eat cut fruits. Sleep inside a mosquito net or apply mosquito-repellent spray or cream to avoid getting dengue, chickungunya or malaria. Do not touch stray animals. Don't eat pork.
If you want to be protected, yes!
When I travelled to India I had Hep A and Typhoid Injections. And also took Malaria tablets for the duration of my stay - every day starting 2 days before arrival, and until 4 weeks after departure - and also an oral Cholera immunization!
They aren't entirely necessary. I know a lot of people that didn't take malaria tablets, but if you want to stay free of illness, speak to a professional!