How and why did British colonize America?
Elizabeth I sent some licensed pirates to find land the Spanish didn't have a flag on. Mr. John Smith (statue outside Bow Bells church in the City of London) bumped into North America, stuck the flag in (this was pre-Union flag days) said ‘we'll take this' and named it Virginia after the virgin queen. Then others arrived taking more land, as it was easy and annoyed the pope and the Spaniards, which was always a popular thing to do in England at least if not in Ireland. So, for example, the man who took over from John was Lord De La Warr .... his bit is known as the State of Delaware. Soon everyone knew that 9 in 10 people in the colony had land whereas back in the British & Irish Isles it was 1 in 10. Plus you didn't get fined for not turning up to a Church of England service in the colonies. So anyone thinking of a brighter future or freedom for their religious convictions upped sticks moved and claimed land that the Land Registry didn't know even existed. When the authorities in the UK (I suspect the old landed gentry were to blame for this) tried to stop/regulate colonisation and tax them, the colonies united their states and rebelled thereby booting out the old guard allowing for the rampant colonisation of the centre and west which wiped out the natives and most of the wildlife in the process.
First off it wasn't just the British colonizing the Americas it was most powerful nation states in Europe.The Spanish and Portuguese got South and Central America and in North America it was France in the North by Canada(till the 1700s) and the Dutch around New York(Till Britain conquered it) and the British by the east coast.They establish towns by the coast and planted food to survive and to import food to the Mother country. And now they did this because this made the European country or "Mother Country" rich because they used a system called "Mercantilism". This system worked by the colony providing raw material or resources to the Mother country who would send it back as a final product and sell it to make a profit.This system made the Mother Country really rich which is why they did it.
Be aware that it's easy to mislead readers with any answer to this. ‘America' brings forward the idea of the USA. Britain did not colonise the USA. The colonisers were the people whose descendants are citizens of the USA (apart from those that escaped the initial civil war to Canada or back to the UK). The ‘colonised' were the people who were subsequently mostly exterminated following the formation of the USA.
So, if this question was asked by an American, then it's best rephrased by asking why their ancestors behaved the way they did. Britain tried to regulate and defend its people who had chosen to go to the New World and, in the end, failed to defend the indigenous populations from the resident colonisers.
They, the British went to America to find religious freedom and freedom of conscience.
The problem with most religious refugees is that they carry their shackles with them, wherever they go. Disputes which led to divisions for years, were started on the Mayflower.
I have often said that the Romans stopped using lions and tigers in the arenas because, once the Christians started to have a go at each other, they made the wild animals look tame.
They went to find religious freedom, but no sooner did they have that freedom but they started to prod at each other's consciences.
Intolerance was the first fruit of the colonists. Disease and exploitation of the indigenous. Population was the next fruit. Not a good start!
To get away from religious persecution.
How: like always we traveledtheir on ships, then tricked the natives, before taking over their land.
Why: it was mainly for resources. It was extra space to farm sugar, making money and furthering our power.
It was also to get ahold of gold and other valuable elemants from which we could make momey.
Finally, it was to stop the Spanish and other colonial powers from getting ahold of America's resources and land.