How do cell phone towers work?

In a grossly oversimplified description, there are hundreds of towers, all with overlapping coverage.

As you move along, your phone I said constantly looking for whichever on has the strongest signal. When you make a call, that tower will connect back to a switching center, which is connected to all the other towers, and the regular old landline telephone network, through which you call is completed.

As you continue to move, your signal to and from that tower gets weaker, and is being constantly measured by both your phone and the tower.

When it gets low enough that call quality can become degraded, the network then finds a new tower that "sees" your phone with a stronger signal than the one you are on. Your phone is sent a command, telling it to retune and move to a better tower.

This happens throughout the duration of your call, and on call may be handled by dozens of towers along the way, depending on how fast you are moving and how long you talk.

Google cellular telephony basics, and you will find dozens of articles, some fairly technical, some more so.

Here's a "middle ground" one.

Cellular Basics and Concepts

A cellphone or modem radios the nearest towers, saying, basically, "I'm here!" When you make a call or logon, your phone then sends a message via radio that's picked up by the antenna array.

A wire or fiberoptic line carries the call down to the wireless access point, connected to a multi-port switch.

The call, along with many others, gets routed to a backhaul, usually down to an underground wired T1 or T3 line, but sometimes back up the mast to a powerful line-of-sight wireless microwave antenna. They resort to wireless either when they don't have a ground connection, or when the ground connection sucks.

The incoming call or data comes back from the backhaul and up through the switch to the antenna, where it then hits your phone wirelessly, presuming your phone is still communicating with the same site. If you are moving, then there's a handoff-a new but more or less identical cell site transmits the data to your phone, once your phone checks in and says "I'm here."

All of this happens in the blink of an eye!

To request to explain this to you in a Quora response is a big ask! You will not understand a bit unless you understand the whole mobile network and its architecture and procedures. A cell tower stand alone does nothing except "littering" it's environment with electromagnetic waves -microwaves to be precise.

The towers, or rather the mobile base stations installed on them or on them are just relays or proxies to enable the communication of mobile phones to the network, to the internet and to each other. The controlling intelligence of the network sits in a number of central nodes, for example

  • mobile switching centers (MSC) for voice connection
  • SGSN and GGSN: data nodes (specialized routers) to connect to the internet
  • Home location register (HLR) and AUC as databases for subscriber registration and authentication

And a lot of other nodes for administration, charging and billing.

There are big metal things that are strong enough to hold up the (quite heavy) radios & antennas.

Flippancy aside:

I suspect you mean somethging more like:

How exactly do cell towers work in terms of managing a call?
How do cellular phone calls work versus land line phone calls?
How does a cell phone connect with a cell phone tower? Does it beam radiations in all directions? How does it actually locate the cell phone tower? I know about control frequency? But, how does the wave beamed out by the cell phone reach the cell phone tower?

Whenever you make a call from your cell, it emits electromagnetic waves. The antenna from the nearest cell phone tower receives these waves and transform them into signals.

To have reliable radio link between two devices there is a need to maximize the chance of direct line of sight between them, because any obstacle attenuates signal much greater than the open space. By placing antenna higher above the ground the chance of direct sight between base station and phone is maximized. Also, directional antennas are used.

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