How do we prove that animals are not self-aware?

There is no way to prove that a particular species is not self-aware.  The classic mirror self-recognition test (also known as the "mark test") can indicate that an animal is, indeed, self-aware.  It cannot, however, indicate that an animal lacks self-awareness.  It is only applicable to visually oriented animals who don't mind conspicuously examining various parts of themselves in front of a mirror, in the presence of observers.

Even with such limitations, it has already demonstrated self-awareness in birds, mammals, and insects.  (magpies, orcas, dolphins, elephants, rhesus macaques, gorillas, orangutans, chimps, bonobos, humans, and ants, to be more specific.) Page on

Here's a beautiful quote:

"Self-awareness is like gravity," Johns Hopkins's Roma says. "We can't  touch it directly, so if we want to measure it, scientists must develop  valid techniques to directly observe its effects. Currently, mirror mark  tests are the best-known and most accepted method, but the absence of  an effect does not necessarily mean the absence of the thing we're  trying to measure. Ultimately, evidence from multiple techniques should  converge on the truth, whatever it may be. Such is the beauty of how  scientific advances turn controversy into common knowledge."

Kids (and Animals) Who Fail Classic Mirror Tests May Still Have Sense of Self

(I've given some more explanation here: Susan Cho's answer to Is there a test that can prove that animals are self-aware?)
Exercise: How can I find time to work out while going to school and working full time?

The usual reason for this question is that exercise is what you don't like to do. If you liked it best, you'd be asking, "How can I find time to do go to school while working full time and exercising to stay healthy." Each of us sets priorities. It is easy to fit in one more. Exercise can

Is kayaking good exercise?

It's the best!!!! It builds both arm, core and legs. You don't have to go fast to get a good work out, but if you live by a bay, paddling against the tide is sure to get those muscles working. Don't do it just for the physical work out. The thrill of being so close to the water and

Can push ups, squats and crunches make hemorrhoids more severe?

Im a huge fan of bodyweight exercises for the reason that you can use them for a great workout anywhere. And perhaps the king of all bodyweight exercises, is the squat. Squats are awesome because they provide a great workout for multiple muscle groups, including the butt,