How does lower atmosphere get heated by the earth?

Through two mechanisms, convection and thermal radiation.

Convection is similar to conduction (vibrating molecules physically interact, with energy transferred from the more energetic molecule to the less energetic one) except convection includes the idea that the fluid (in this case air) can also move and carry the heat energy with it. So cooler air molecules bumping into hotter ground molecules obtain more kinetic energy. Temperature is the average molecular kinetic energy, or T = unitconversionconstant*molecule mass*velocity squared.

The second mechanism comes from cooling ground. By conservation of energy, when an atom of earth cools off, it emits a photon to carry away the energy. We can see these photos when an iron bar is red hot, for example. We can also see the photos from cool things using night vision goggles. The photons head upwards towards outer space. If they don't hit any greenhouse gas, they escape the Earth (that's how Earth sheds the energy on the dark side that it picked up form the sun on the bright side). If they do hit a greenhouse gas like water or CO2, the photon gets absorbed and the atmosphere gets a little warmer.


If we were to find alien life, is it possible that their planet could have oil and nuclear weapons?

You do not know the worst of it!Of course crude oil would be formed and uranium could be found. With smart aliens all over the place the oil could be refined into gasoline and nuclear technology may be developed. That is not the deadly part and the worst of it.Biological animals that do not want

What are the odds of a world war in the next 20 years?

Amazon.co.uk: General Sir Richard Shirreff: 9781473632226: BooksIn my defence, bad writing, great story.Closely modelled on his NATO experience of war gaming future conflicts, 2017 War With Russia is a chilling account of where we are heading if we fail to recognise

How is Pakistan destroying India?

Pakistan is nowhere near destroying India. India is surging ahead in the path if development, full speed.Nobody, I repeat, nobody can destroy you, if your house is in order. Strength comes from within. We have tremendous diversity in terms of language, culture, ethnicity, religion. But, we are all united under one flag, the tricolour. Nobody can destroy us.