If I only get 3 hours of sleep for one night, will that effect my muscle growth at all?
If you are deprived of sleep, the balance of cotisol is affected. This leads to impaired immune system, increased appetite and weight gain. It also contributes to potential for diabetes. Its hard to immagine how an exercise program would not suffer under these conditions.
If it only happens once it would be impossible to measure the effect. If it happens regularly your results will surely suffer.