If the capital of India had not been shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, what might have been the present scenario of the political system of India?Political scenario would have been same because of dominance of congress at the time of Independence and love of Gandhi ji for Nehru. CPI a major political party and ideology that flourished in Bengal always supported INC and we all are aware of Nehru's socialistic view . Nehru got considerable strength from the support of left and this continued during the time of Indira Gandhi till emergency. During emergency she realized the loss and started to work for the restoration of that strength. After that CPI remained a close ally of congress due to some ideological similarities like secularism, minority appeasement policy and anti imperialism.
Even a lot of regional parties support congress to get vote bank in the name of secularism. In India it is a political agenda to get vote of minority in the name of secularism because a lot of Hindu supports secular view and rest are not left with any other option rather than choosing one of these parties. As such this is the main reason why congress ruled this country for so long time. Real threat for Congress and CPI was the emergence of party supported by Sangh. They knew that sooner or later it will happen and finally it happened in the form of BJP. The internal democracy and discipline of BJP produced some very good regional leaders and these leaders restored the faith of common man in the politics.
Politics is reflection of our society. We create leaders, we give them majority and power to rule over us. So political system depends on our social structure and standard. As we advance in social domain, advancement in political domain happens automatically. This can be seen in current political system of India.
I guess social changes would have been occurred at the same pace so the political system also would have been the same in some extent.