WW3 Map: Could this be map after WW3?
Immense amount of work in this question. Thankfully we're never going to have a war with 2 billion casualties. WW3 is conceptually possible but realistically so improbable that for the most part it's impossible. Countries act in their own self interest. The only countries large enough to precipitate a world war have no interest in a war on that scale because it's not in their interest. China and the USA both suffer massively in a full scale war that encompasses the globe. The damage to their economies (particularly China where 80–90% of their economy travels by sea) would be catastrophic and there's no possible way to offset that loss by the gains made in war (if there even are any gains to be had).
In the past countries went to war to gain security, gain power, gain wealth or gain land. There's really no way to gain any of those things anymore. The US could probably gain land but it would be so unpopular both internally and externally the costs are simply too great.
Interesting map. Not how I'd see it develop. The first point is there'd be winners and losers. If the Western alliance (Europe, US, Canada, Australia, India, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Columbia, South Africa, Kenya, Ethiopia, plus a few misc minor states) wins then a lot of the map remains unchanged.
If the Russian alliance wins (Russia, Sunni Muslims, Marxist Latin/South America). Then Russia controls most if not all of Europe. They would not stop with old cold war gains. They'd keep rolling into Germany and onward to the West. The picture in the Western hemisphere is cloudier. I suspect the US can hold off the invasion by Marxist Latin/South American countries. Columbia and Mexico would fall first. Mexico by revolution, puppet government installed. Columbia by invasion. That'd draw US troops in and Russian air power along with Chinese air power could knock out US air power and infrastructure as well as sink most of the US navy. With high losses of course. Europe however has only a token air force and navy. So Russia and China could afford the losses. Take the US out and they are free to invade whoever they want.
If the Chinese alliance wins (China, Shiite Muslims, Indonesia (forced ally, Indonesia isn't especially happy with China, but they are also extremely vulnerable and could easily be bullied onto China's side, and Marxist Latin/South America). This would create rapid expansion similar to what Japan did in WW II. Vietnam, Thailand, Burma would all fall rapidly. The Philippines would be dragged in almost immediately. The likely scenario is Chinese navy and air power supporting Indonesian conscripts as ground troops in Australia. This would nullify Australia and remove the allied base in the region.
No way New Mexico is let go by the US. Texas might well succeed. In fact if Hillary is elected the odds are good not just Texas but most of the Central, Western and Southern US will leave the union. Texas isn't even the most radical. Oklahoma is probably. Alaska, Wyoming and Montana are 3 states even more likely to leave the union than Texas. The Western, Southern and Central US states have a great deal in common and far more in common than they do with the coasts and rust belt. In fact southern Indiana, Illinois and Ohio might split off and join the Western US. So Texas being alone is unlikely. Instead it'd likely be Arizona Idaho, Utah, Montana, midwest states, with border states like Kentucky, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, the Dakotas, North Carolina, Nevada and Colorado are iffy as to where they fall. New Mexico, or at least the Eastern half can and likely will be claimed as part of Texas since it was Texas territory ceded as part of entering the US.
It's highly possible that California splits into Northern Cali and Southern Cali with northern or eastern Cali going with Western states. Oregon and Washington might also split. The rural areas of these states are diametrically opposed to the urban areas.
Hawaii will likely declare independence. There is a strong independence movement in Hawaii as it is. Any disruption in Federal authority and there would likely be an armed revolt.
A US civil war is the likely kick off for WW III. It takes the US out of the world stage and opens the door to Chinese and Russian expansion. The Western alliance would likely win the US civil war. Neither side has an advantage in terms of industry. The Western US alliance has more motivation, more experienced combat vets, better arms and less vulnerable infrastructure. US military assets are spread all over the country. That makes it a draw there. The population is about even, but a large percentage of Federalist population will be non-US citizens or first generation US citizens with little or no loyalty to the US or minimal motivation as troops. The lack of maneuvering space in the Federalist regions will be another major decided disadvantage. It will make them predictable and concentrated.
I'm not buying the Quebec split. If WW III happened, Canadians would draw together rather than apart. Especially if both France and UK are threatened. A more logical move would be French speaking Canada joining Federalist US, while Western Canada stays Canada or merges into Western US. The tension between French and English speaking regions of Canada was pretty high in the last 15 years but appears to have calmed considerably lately. A US Civil war might however break it wide open. French speaking Canada would sympathize heavily with the US Federalists, the rest of Canada would probably prefer neutrality unless one of the two sides somehow insulted or aggravated Canada.
Your map doesn't describe Chinese aggression. China has openly warned and claimed Taiwan. China has also openly lusted after Nepal and India. Tensions between China and Japan are extremely high. If the US is out of the picture, war between China and India/Japan/Taiwan is almost certain.
Speaking from a Brazilian perspective about the map of Brazil :
The Republic of Amapa is unlikely. I'd take the map more seriously if you had drawn a Republic of the South comprised of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná who have a separatist feeling since 18th century and the movement is growing out of discontent with Brazilian policies.
See 'O Sul é meu pais' movement.
Another state that has a similar separatist movement is the Brazilian powerhouse state of São Paulo, with the movement 'Republica de Sao Paulo' MRSP, plus the movement MSPI 'Sao Paulo Independente' and finally 'Sao Paulo Patria' SPP, each one with a different leadership.
Best of luck.
Edit: I can't be more impressed with the map and its various forms, it's inventive and world-building on an entirely different level than anything I could make.
Short answer: yes with reservations, due to strategically tenuous island republics and certain odd borders, along with the perfect maintenance of current borders that would probably be changed after WW3.
Biggest concerns are Cyprus, Taiwan, France and Germany, North Africa in general, and the UK.
Also I assume this is without nukes? Otherwise the entire map would be gone.
My first concern regards the independent nation of Cyprus. Seeing as it is being disputed by Turkish rule in the north, in the event of World War 3 it would presumably be a massive battleground. Since both sides would be fighting on it, the island would be crippled and defenseless if neither nation asserted direct control over it. Having nothing but a "home guard" militia to defend it, it would seem to be easy taking for Egypt, possibly Syria and definitely one of the large powers.
With this in mind, perhaps you could have coloured borders to help with alliances? Perhaps Germany and Denmark turn against each other, or they ally? The map is currently unclear but I feel this would strongly help your map in terms of enjoyability.
My second concern is Alaska. Seeing as it's right on Russia's doorstep and acts as a doorstop for Canada, it would seem that the US would attempt as hard as possible to prevent a Russian victory. Perhaps the Russians could have had some success to the point where they established the Republic of Alaska as a client state of theirs, since the US would never willingly let a state fall.
A solid job with the Italian peninsula, I strongly think the Veneto would secede and southern Italy would potentially unite, with Sicily having a unique culture and easily defendable island to promote a separate republic. My one little gripe is that I feel the Vatican City would be the first thing to go if World War 3 were to happen. Either an Italian state protects it, making it inferior, or a desperate Italy accepts the creation of a new Papal States to unify the Catholic world.
As for the rest of Europe I'm worried the boundaries are too stagnant. Russia seems the same as it usually is, Eastern Europe is also quite intact and the only differences I can notice in Western Europe are independent/former UK states and a divided Italy. I can't think of anything that would make Scotland secede except for a terrible showing by the English military or an inability to maintain sovereignty over the British Isles.
Sweden's been warring, Finland's taken some Russian land and Makedonia now has a coastline. I would really expect the (comparatively) weak former SSRs to fall under Russian control, or at least vassal-like influence. I don't detect any animosity between the Scandanavian nations in the present day, but of course things could change during WW3.
A very interesting route would be a Chinese state in Africa. They are currently one of, if not the largest investors in African infrastructure and businesses, and it would therefore not be out of the question for some parts of Africa to be under Chinese suzerainty or direct control.
I'm with Kumar, the Maldives defeating the Indian army is a path less traveled. I also would suggest that the Indian army could make incursions into Pakistan as they are old rivals, and vice versa.
And finally the odd position of having Taiwan as the 51st state. I can see the island being the first thing China gets rid of, but if the situation were desparate I can definitely see the US waging a brutal, nation-destroying war that leaves the PROC in tatters and allows the ROC to once again return to the mainland after 90 years of exile. At the very least they might take over Fujian, Zheijang and especially Guangdong provinces (due to the region's Westernised attitudes).