What actionable plans are in place to intercept or address celestial objects on a collision course with Earth, and what are those plans?

No such objects have been found, but if they were it would eventually be detected (see Current Impact Risks) and classified by risk. It is unlikely we can do much about it with our current technology, other than make closer observations as time goes on. The one class of object we can do little to detect is those that come directly at use from the vicinity of the Sun which prevents telescopes from being used to observe them. Special phenomena like solar flares have dedicated instruments to detect them, which give a little warning (a matter of hours).
Have any governments confirmed intelligent extraterrestrial life?

No. Depending on how you define the question, there has only been one specific attempt to look for life itself (as opposed to evidence of past life) on surface of another planet, with a device sitting on that planet, and you can read about it here: Viking lander biological experiments NASA currently takes great care to avoid

Do Democrats propose more laws than Republicans?

I agree with Stephen.  Logically, given what both parties favor, it would seem to be true that Democrats propose more laws.  Republicans are in favor of less government, less regulations, less tying the hands of individuals and businesses.  Look at Ted Cruz's tax plan

Will NASA ever travel to another galaxy?

(Answer corrected: Original answer featured Andromeda as the nearest galaxy at the distance of 2.5 million light years. As it turns out, it's the nearest SPIRAL galaxy. )This is the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, interlocked with the Milky Way.