What building materials can I use to build a house in a very cold place?
Mostly It's no specific material used for cold climates, slightly different architecture.
Foundations are quite crucial when it comes to heat; insulated concrete form is a favorite technique of formwork for reinforced concrete.
Foundations can be a large cause of heat loss if not done correctly.
Walls on the other hand usually has double walls, one load-bearing, one not.
It allows insulation installation from one side.
The system still has the same materials of a standard wall.
For cold climates (snow/ice), slick roofs and sloped metal can cause ice and snow to slide and hit building elements or areas under a roof or wall, danger to both people and property.
A vegetative roof ads roughness and intricate geometries that can minimize slide, but can potentially increase the volume of snow collection on the roof.
I'm sure other Architectures or Construction workers can give a more clear and better answer than this.
Im from Africa where the general climatic conditions are usually above 23degrees Celsius...this is fairly warm.. towards hot.
Iv never experienced any condition below 9degrees celcius,...however, to maintain a certain average temperature in a dwelling as compared to the outside temperature, one needs to prevent the cold from radiating through the walls of a dwelling into the rooms, or loosing heat from within to the outside.
The most common type construction is to do a cavity wall. This is a wall erected having two leafs constructed using bricks, blocks, rc concrete, etc, parallel to one another with a gap between of not less than 50mm. The two leafs are anchored together using steel wall ties having a moisture drip midway between.
I think natural stone, clay bricks, concrete blocks are the most ideal for construction in cold climates using the above technique
Styrofoam blocks maybe