What if Italy never united?
Italy was united from 1861, but it is a country like it is today only from 1946.
Until 1946 Italy was mostly Rome+regions, with strong push and pulls for independance.
The most autonomous regions are Valle d'Aosta, Trentino, Friuli Venezia Giulia and the two islands, Sardegna and Sicilia. They still today have very large autonomies in taxes and economy.
Every Italian citizen in the north knows French or Deutsch, and dialects are still strong.
If Italy was never united, northern Italy would be annexed to France, Switzerland, Austria and Croatia.
Sardegna would be French and Sicily a terra franca like Malta or Cyprus.