What is the difference between a developer and a coder? Or are they both exactly the same thing?Terminology will vary dependent primarily on the type of systems you are working on. I learnt my trade in a central organisation within a large company in what was then called a Data Processing department. We mostly developed systems like contract control, stock control and payroll. Everything was waterfall. A programmer would work from a program specification written by a systems analyst. It was an engineering company and IT staff working within the engineering divisions of the company called themselves engineers regardless of whether they were working on very technical systems or on data processing.
Now I am a consultant in a smaller company. Even junior consultants are expected to be able to work from business requirements generating a system design before they start coding. So I would call them developers. The best might be involved in the capture of the business requirements in the first place and proceed from there.
So I would say a trainee would be a coder just doing precisely what he is told. Soon they would learn how to be a programmer , to program from a specification with minimal guidance. A fully mature developer should be able to build from user requirements.