What would happen if the continent of Africa was one country?

If Africa was one country then..

  • It would be the most populous country with a population of 1.2 billion people. Africa would rank after China and India to be the most populous country in the world.
  • All the 54 countries would be termed as the 54 states of Africa. Algeria would be the largest state by area and Nigeria the state with the largest population.

A pan-African nation would work very similar to the European Union. It would have an African Commission, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and a Pan-African Parliament in Johannesburg, South Africa. The main languages of the pan-African nation would be English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Arabic and Swahili. There would 1.2 billion people in the pan-African nation of 11.5 million square miles (29.9 million square km). GDP would be 5.5 trillion U.S. dollars. The founding date would be July 9, 2002. The largest city is Lagos, Nigeria.

The pan-African nation would have had 5 presidents, Amara Essy (2002–2003), Alpha Oumar Konare (2003–2008), Jean Ping (2008–2012), Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (2012–2017) and Moussa Faki (since March 2017). There would be 4 leaders of the pan-African Parliament, Gertrude Mongella (2004–2008), Idriss Ndele Moussa (2009–2012), Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi (2012–2015) and Roger Nkodo Dang (since 2015).

Due to the Arab Spring, Egypt, Libya and possibly Tunisia would not be part of this pan-African nation, as they identify more with the Middle East. Also, the division of authority and acquired wealth would be an issue. In a situation similar to Spain and Catalonia, wealthy African countries would not want their revenues diverted to poorer African countries. More importantly, some political parties in African countries stay in power through charismatic leaders, control of the media and rallying their support base. This could be in danger if a pan-African government embarks on a anti-corruption campaign or sends observers to ensure free and fair elections in its member states.

Overall, the pan-African nation will be federalized and highly decentralized as a unitary state will be nearly impossible to enforce and certain to lead to instability. Many people in African countries do not want to ruled by an outsider and be denied the right to choose their own leaders. Individual African member states would set their own laws, challenge the laws of the pan-African nations and maintain their own state militias. We would have a situation similar to the United States right before the outbreak of the American Civil War.

As neo-colonialism is affecting African countries with the world outside Africa taking advantage of its relative poverty, a unified Africa would be a security measure to protect poor African countries from being exploited by wealthy western nations.

Honestly, I would love to see the African continent unite to become one body, Africa being rich in natural resources would definitely become a huge rival in the economic world; hopefully that happens and we can look forward to a new competitor to play against the big dogs such as United States in the capitalistic game.

Africa is huge and covers over 20% of all the land on Earth making it about three times the size of all of Europe. 1.2 billion people currently live in Africa or about 16% of the entire global population, so interestingly a United African state would actually have a smaller population than both India and China but this wouldn't be the case for very long since Africa is currently experiencing the largest population boom in the world.The population of the continent has doubled since just 1990 at the continent is expected to surpass the populations of both India and China in the same year 2022.

Africa has a lot of room to grow the continent is projected to be the quickest growing region of the world in the future and her GDP is expected to finally overtake France and the United Kingdom by 2023 but will still remain behind in Germany then all things considered though Africa certainly has the potential if it United to become a superpower.

By the close of the 21st century, it would have a massive population to fuel a massive Army in a potentially huge economy that could one day rival the rest of the world with one flag Africa the country would be a United continent optimistically looking forward to what the future would bring for her.

African Union currently doesn't have plans for a supranational state. However, under their blueprint long term ambitious Agenda 2063 plan, they are exploring to consolidate a constitutional draft of a Union Government by 2025 for African governments to share to the African populace to decide in a future referendum and a possible legal annexation ratification agreement of a creating a political pact by 2030–2034 which centers around the political union with African citizenship and passport, and the Union anthem and flag will be widely observed. There will also be direct elections of Members of Parliament to the Union legislative body and the President of the Union will be elected by universal suffrage where African citizens can vote for their continental president and government. This extends beyond the Abuja Treaty of 1991, under the African Union Sirte Declaration of 1999. With a domestication of all the continental government political institutions by 2045–2055. United States Of Africa will be in the works in the future, right after they consolidate the final pillar of the Economic treaty of Abuja 1991 creating a unified converged EU style economic system by 2028–34 e.g. African Economic Community with a Pan-African Parliament and a African Court of Justice with African Union laws put in place and merging all the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) across the continent e.g. ECOWAS - West Africa, COMESA - Central, East and Southern Africa, SADC - Southern Africa, EAC - East Africa etc.

According to AU's Agenda 2063 Framework document released in 2014:

"Africa by 2063 will have realized the fulfilment of the founders' dream or vision of a United Africa, a union of well-governed and democratic continent. The political unity of Africa will be the culmination of the integration process, including the free movement of people, the establishment of continental institutions, and full economic integration.

By 2030, there will be consensus on the form of the continental unity and its underlying institutions. By 2045, all legal measures required for the formation of a United Africa will be in place with all its institutions (executive, legislative and Judicial). Regional, state and local governance structures will be appropriately reformed.

There will be an African citizenship and passport, and the Union anthem and flag will be widely observed. There will also be direct election of Members of Parliament to the Union legislative body and the President of the Union will be elected by universal suffrage.

As part of the political evolution to a United Africa, key economic institutions and frameworks, inter alia, the African Common Market (2025), Africa Monetary Union (2030), Africa Customs Union (2019) and Continental Free Trade Area (2017) will have been established as anchors of the governance structure of a United Africa."


Under 31/201 pages

The 2007 African Union Accra Declaration Treaty - Long term creation of a political integrated union. Where all the African leaders met in Accra, Ghana at an 2007 African Union summit.

"2. We agree on the following steps to attaining the Union Government: a) to rationalize and strengthen the Regional Economic Communities, and harmonize their activities, in conformity with our earlier decision, so as to lead to the creation of an African Common Market, through the stages set in the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community (Abuja Treaty), with are viewed and shorter timeframe to be agreed upon in order to accelerate the economic and, where possible, political integration;"


Accra Declaration on the Union Government of Africa Accra

Back in 2006–2007 there was a study by Pan-Africanist study groups who worked with the African Union body, with the late Gaddafi, insight concepts of a single African state governance, looking at the United States model to the EU model and other indigenous models e.g. African traditional pre-colonial decentralised People/Village centred governance model.

Source: "United States Of Africa By 2015?"


The original schedule for the formation of this new nation, United Africa (Popular term, United States Of Africa) was back between 2015 and 2017. However, led to conflicts in 2009 and 2010 with African leaders and governments who were not ready to cede power, were in conflict with Gaddafi who wanted to fast track the African constitution to form the supranational African state.

Second source from 2010, the last time some who were in favour, some African leaders discussed a possible timeline for the formation in 2017

Speaking to journalists in the corridors of UN headquarters, President Wade said: "At the level of the African Union, we are planning to reach the United States of Africa by 2017", and in preparation for it "the AU will begin to install the architecture for a continental form of government beginning in 2010".

The original schedule was planned in 2011 for the AU will meet to transform its commission into an authority, and thereby create the positions of president and vice presidents with specific continental roles, according to Amina S. Ali, the AU's ambassador to the United States. Which ended up being scrapped, when Gadaffi left his one year term, and conflict with the AU because he wanted more terms to push ahead the grand union which the body rejected his call. This was at the time for the last years before his death, he was disappointed at the African leaders and his own body he created which he was not in favour because he wanted a stronger body and a United Africa state sooner at the time of its treaty declaration back in 1999.

United States of Africa by 2017

With that....

Carrington applauded the Second African-South American (ASA) summit held in Venezuela in September.

The host, President Hugo Chavez, described the relationship between Africa and South America as one linked by "geography and blood". He said the ASA would work to combine the political and economic muscle of the AU and the Union of South American States (UN-ASUR) to use the mineral reserves of the two continents for the benefit of their own peoples.

"We have the largest reserves in strategic commodities," Chavez declared. "We will pursue a strategic agenda between 2010 and 2020 to control the resources of Africa and South America [because] only then will we earn the respect of the US and Europe and have a well-balanced world." Addressing the summit, the South African president, Jacob Zuma, said "South America can play a positive role in the development of Africa's enormous, yet under-exploited, potential, as can Africa in South America... The success of this relationship will play a key role in the long-awaited development of our two continents, as we make ever greater progress in eradicating poverty and underdevelopment."

Which after that summit for the Second African-South American Summit. During and After the 2011 Libyan war, a SATO strategic alliance for United Africa state end up being a scrap for Africa future security that could rival NATO and United States. That also upset the neocons at Washington DC, London and Brussels. They didn't want an independent large sovereign African state, controlling its own economy and resources which the west have to pay which they couldn't afford with their debt based Bretton Woods economy.

Study Debate by African Union back in 2009, For and Against United States Of Africa:


Towards A Union Government For Africa (January 2008)

An african constitution? Study (Page 171)


What hypothetically African constitution will have if Africa unites under a United Africa (United States Of Africa)

United Africa (UA Constitution)

the ‘third draft constitution of united Africa (the united States of Africa)', which we shall call the uA draft constitution, was finalised in yaoundé, cameroon, on 25 May 2005 following the end of a collective endeavour that started formally in September 1999 but can be traced as far back as the mid-1990s.

(A book entitled Confédération des Etats-Unis d'Afrique devoted a whole chapter to the subject (tadadjeu 1996).) It includes pertinent provisions of the 1963 OAU charter, the 1991 Abuja treaty establishing the African Economic community and the constitutive Act of the African union of 2000 (including its 2003 amendments). New provisions, i.e. provisions not contained in past texts of the OAU and the AU, constitute about one-third of the content of the UA draft constitution. this document is, therefore, a text that is essentially built on the gains of the OAU and AU.

the document is made up of two parts, preceded by an introductory note on the motivations and methodological approach underlying the text. the first part deals with the political integration of the continent and includes the following innovations compared with existing OAU and AU texts:

Associate membership to be accorded to the African diaspora (state or local) communities that apply for such status (article 3)

the creation of appropriate natural, material and financial resources for the general management and development of the continent and its regions (chapter 6 in full)


172 An African constitution? ten hypotheses of what it should include

  1. The creation of a pan-African army as an extension and completion of the current initiative aimed at instituting an African Standby force as a permanent mechanism for bringing lasting peace and security to the continent (chapter 8 in full)

2. The participation of political organisations (movements and parties) as major stakeholders in the process of building a united Africa (chapter 9)

3. The regrouping of existing AU executive portfolios and their extension from ten to 15 (articles 22-23)

It would be designed like the pre-colonial empires but with federation union of states observed by pan-Africanists.

It wouldn't work for more than a day before collapsing back into numerous independent countries at war with each other.

Africa is the most diverse, divided, and disorganized continent in the world. There are more ethnic groups and tribes in Africa than every other continent in the world combined. See the Murdock Ethnic Map of Africa at the bottom of this answer (which even Murdock himself limited by putting a minimum size for his registry of a unique ethnicity).

These divisions would make a United States of Africa a practical impossibility. Nigeria already has had raging civil wars because it only has 300 ethnic groups.

Honestly I don't think it would go well. Just like it wouldn't go well if Canada and America became one country. Except worse. America and Canada have very similar cultures but are in many other ways different. But you're talking about 54 countries coming as one. Very different cultures and values. It would be really hard to do. And honestly African countries haven't gotten on their feet cause of a big reason. Crappy politicians. Greedy ones. Such as the past leader of Zimbabwe. The UK gave Zimbabwe 60 Million to help the people there. But instead the leader bought a 60 Million dollar private jet. Or he just bought a bunch of jets.

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