tl; dr version: Enigma was the name of the cryptography machine used by the Germans. ULTRA was the codename used by the Allies to describe German coded messages they had managed to intercept and decode.In 1918, during the First World War, a German engineer called Arthur Scherbius invented a machine resembling a
In WW 2 did the Germans respect WW1 Allies war graves? Did the Allies respect German WW1 war graves?
In former East Prussia, now in Poland, I have visited once (about year 2000) a common German/Russian military cemetary from WWI. Say low hundreds of graves. While it had been up-kept contemporarily, it was clear that all elements date from
In layman's terms, how did Germany become the economic powerhouse of the euro area, especially after the two world wars?
Population, education and resources all put to use in a freshly rebuilt modern industry after WWII.Remember that much of the pre 1945 industrial capacity was destroyed and had to be rebuilt with the latest technology.
U can read it. It is a book to understand the socio political scenario of Europe in general in 1870-1930 and Germany in particular. It will be too dry a book until you know the political borders of European countries after unification
According to SPYMASTER: Startling Cold War Revelations of a Soviet KGB Chief, by Tennent H. Bagley, 2013 Skyhorse Publishing, New York, in May 1945 just after Soviet troops had secured the Reich Chancellery area, a Soviet military search party found half-burned bodies they considered to
I could not describe it in one word, but I could describe it with many words.Unequal : The Germans invaded and took Tsingtao, by using two murdered missionaries as the pretext for the repossession of Tsingtao (Kiaochow) from China in 1897, by a leasing treaty which like the British did
The Soviets were the ones who defeated Germany.With US having entered WWII, UK+ US didn't defeat Germany, though their combined effort did get close to that. The true defeat of Germany came from the USSR.Granted, without material help from the US to the USSR, defeating Rommel at Operation
I am not sure it would be about power differential. West Germany was an economic power then and of course has only increased today. East Germany did a lot with so many constraints. Historically if you look at how East Germany had to pay WWII reparations, had a central planned economy and primarily trade with Comecon countries
I'm not sure it would be reunified at all. After the Berlin Wall fell, leaders of Britain, France, and the Soviet Union started out adamantly opposed. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher cribbed the quote of a prominent French writer:
It is an impossible answer to comprehend. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris (1951) defined the European Coal and Steel Community, predecessor to the European Union was signed with France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, the Netherlands, and West Germany, to officially ‘stabilise Western Europe', but more importantly, to control the economic powerhouse known as
I'm no expert on this subject.There are very few Jews in Germany today. I don't know how the German people feel about this but the permanent elimination of Jews was a major goal of the Nazi's.The Autobahn...Copied all over the world.The Volkswagen Beetle.A successful representative
It sucks that you have to make that disclaimer at the end, but i understand why. Communism has proven to be far more insidious in its ability to warp people's minds, IMO. Just look at the hammer and sickle symbol on t-shirts, or che
No. They had opposite agendas. The modern German state established by Prussia was intended to exclude Austria and leave Prussia dominant. Nazism was a pan-German movement.
Curios! And the other aspects?It was still bombed down, ruins everywhere. Millions of POW. dismantlingm destroying....What are with Oder Neise border and Estern Prussia, Königsberg?You see....too many if, when and open questions
Yes- but in stages.Stage 1 was to push Britain off the Continent and subordinate France (check)Stage 2 was to smash the Soviet Union and occupy it to the Urals - with raids to keep the remainder down (not quite, oops)Stage 2b was to eliminate all non-useful Slavs
Would a 'Greater Germany,' including Habsburg Austria, have been created had the Holy Roman Empire not been dismantled so suddenly?
Thanks for the A2A.Ever since the Holy Roman Empire was created by a saxon duke named Otto I as an attempt to revive the old Carolingian Empire founded by Charlemagne, there are numerous times that the emperor tried to centralize the empire from the
He was a disaster. His incompetence destroyed his empire.Diplomatic failureBismarck left 2 advices to his successors:- There are 5 major states in Europe. Always make sure that you belong to the side that consists of 3 states.- Always be on the same side as RussiaAt WWI, Germany started at the worst possible situation. Fighting together with Austria against: GB,
One of the major ruinous decisions the Kaiser made was to abandon the diplomatic work of Bismarck on the eastern front to prevent a two-front war. The Reinsurance Treaty was not continued in William II's reign and largely due to his own intention. The other one was the aggressive expansion
How could German Empire (1871~1918) made great achievement in economy, military, science and technology in the absence of democracy?
Regarding matters like social welfare, the German Empire was very progressive. They invented a compulsory health insurance and pension plans for workers. Quite democratic achivements without a democrazy.That leads me to my second point. Yes, the German chancellor could only
Generally one of mistrust or hostility. Bavaria was 'bounced' into the German empire, in lots of ways. Prussia dominated the German empire, and its political leaders were determined that Austria should not be part of the German Reich. Bavarian statesmen argued that Austria should be - after all, they were German speakers too. And importantly
Said,Nazi Germany or Hitler wanted the whole world, not just Europe. As simple as it sounds, and it was, the times, naïveté, and the horrors of WW1 made it hard for the allies to assume anything like having a backbone.Only Churchill knew what was going on, and when he expressed his views he was called a warmonger, go figure.
Revolutions in the the history of Germany:1848/49: "March Revolution", with the goal of uniting the states of the German Confederation under a democratic system, failed, though it achieved some liberal reforms in some of the German states.1918: "November Revolution", with the goal of overthrowing the German
I recommend Simon Winder: Germania - A Personal History of Germans Ancient and Modern. I appreciate british historians and this book is realy refreshing. Winder is the lector of Ian Kershaw and Christopher Clark and loves German history. A very interesting and really entertaining book.
It wouldn'tIt's often said that the WW1 created WW2 but that's incorrect. It's much more exact to say that WW1 created Hitler who created WW2.There was no other politician in Germany who was that radical and that extreme. Without Hitler Germany would've become
Not as such, no. There were no specific laws (that I am aware of) against Judaism or Jews.Antisemitism was still widespread, though, as nearly everywhere else....I am assuming you are talking about the German Empire that came into being in 1871 - the other one is
During their internment the prisoners formed an orchestra which performed over a hundred concerts between 1917 and 1920, including at nearby Ryōzen-ji.On 1 June 1918 the prisoners mounted the first performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in the country. This event is the origin of the popularity
This is of course only alternative history (which means garbage), but it has a historical background. Least in this fairly preposterous scenario. Britain was in the best case could sign a peace agreement and remain neutral.Accessing the tripartite pact would have an impact on what is left of the French (especially the the most modern
It did conquer Spain actually! For 7 centuries, until Ferdinand and Isabella kicked them out. Andalusia, 'Al andalus' was prosperous with relatively much religious freedom and acceptances (although Jews and Christians were not allowed to display to much of their faith in the
A very good question. Kaiser Wilhelm was first, last, and always a monarchist. No surprised there. He always hoped--even expected--the monarchy to eventually be restored. He felt that the Wiemar Republic was a mistake and
Of all the people in great Britain faced with nazi occupation and domination, had hitler the means to get across the channel Winston Churchill is definitely one of those who would have fought until the last bullet or cyanide capsule.He even said he would man a barricade on Whitehall and fire his Thompson until killed.
Thanks for the A2A.The kingdom of Bavaria was allied with Austria during the austro-prussian war as Bavaria wanted to remain independant from the rising influence of Prussia within the german confederation. Bavaria was the second largest german kingdom after Prussia.King Ludwig II of Bavaria spent a lot of government money in building projects like the Neuschwanstein castle which