What was Ultra during WW2?

tl; dr version: Enigma was the name of the cryptography machine used by the Germans. ULTRA was the codename used by the Allies to describe German coded messages they had managed to intercept and decode.In 1918, during the First World War, a German engineer called Arthur Scherbius invented a machine resembling a

In WW 2 did the Germans respect WW1 Allies war graves? Did the Allies respect German WW1 war graves?

In former East Prussia, now in Poland, I have visited once (about year 2000) a common German/Russian military cemetary from WWI. Say low hundreds of graves. While it had been up-kept contemporarily, it was clear that all elements date from

In layman's terms, how did Germany become the economic powerhouse of the euro area, especially after the two world wars?

Population, education and resources all put to use in a freshly rebuilt modern industry after WWII.Remember that much of the pre 1945 industrial capacity was destroyed and had to be rebuilt with the latest technology.

What are reviews of 'Mein Kampf' by Adolf Hitler?

U can read it. It is a book to understand the socio political scenario of Europe in general in 1870-1930 and Germany in particular. It will be too dry a book until you know the political borders of European countries after unification

Where is Hitler's body? Where did he die?

According to SPYMASTER: Startling Cold War Revelations of a Soviet KGB Chief, by Tennent H. Bagley, 2013 Skyhorse Publishing, New York, in May 1945 just after Soviet troops had secured the Reich Chancellery area, a Soviet military search party found half-burned bodies they considered to

Between 1871 and 1918, what was German-China relations like?

I could not describe it in one word, but I could describe it with many words.Unequal : The Germans invaded and took Tsingtao, by using two murdered missionaries as the pretext for the repossession of Tsingtao (Kiaochow) from China in 1897, by a leasing treaty which like the British did

If US never entered WWII, would Britain been able to defeat Germany?

The Soviets were the ones who defeated Germany.With US having entered WWII, UK+ US didn't defeat Germany, though their combined effort did get close to that. The true defeat of Germany came from the USSR.Granted, without material help from the US to the USSR, defeating Rommel at Operation

How powerful would East and West Germany be today if they never reunited?

I am not sure it would be about power differential. West Germany was an economic power then and of course has only increased today. East Germany did a lot with so many constraints. Historically if you look at how East Germany had to pay WWII reparations, had a central planned economy and primarily trade with Comecon countries

What if Germany wasn't unified until now?

I'm not sure it would be reunified at all. After the Berlin Wall fell, leaders of Britain, France, and the Soviet Union started out adamantly opposed. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher cribbed the quote of a prominent French writer:

If Germany never joined the EU, how powerful would Germany be today?

It is an impossible answer to comprehend. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris (1951) defined the European Coal and Steel Community, predecessor to the European Union was signed with France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, the Netherlands, and West Germany, to officially ‘stabilise Western Europe', but more importantly, to control the economic powerhouse known as

What are benefits or losses that Germany had after WW2?

I'm no expert on this subject.There are very few Jews in Germany today. I don't know how the German people feel about this but the permanent elimination of Jews was a major goal of the Nazi's.The Autobahn...Copied all over the world.The Volkswagen Beetle.A successful representative

How different would Germany be in 2015 if Hitler had never existed?

It sucks that you have to make that disclaimer at the end, but i understand why. Communism has proven to be far more insidious in its ability to warp people's minds, IMO. Just look at the hammer and sickle symbol on t-shirts, or che

Was Nazism a rerun of the German Empire of 1871-1918?

No. They had opposite agendas. The modern German state established by Prussia was intended to exclude Austria and leave Prussia dominant. Nazism was a pan-German movement.

What would Germany be if Germany had remained united after the Second World War?

Curios! And the other aspects?It was still bombed down, ruins everywhere. Millions of POW. dismantlingm destroying....What are with Oder Neise border and Estern Prussia, Königsberg?You see....too many if, when and open questions

Did Nazi Germany have plans to conquer the whole world?

Yes- but in stages.Stage 1 was to push Britain off the Continent and subordinate France (check)Stage 2 was to smash the Soviet Union and occupy it to the Urals - with raids to keep the remainder down (not quite, oops)Stage 2b was to eliminate all non-useful Slavs

Would a 'Greater Germany,' including Habsburg Austria, have been created had the Holy Roman Empire not been dismantled so suddenly?

Thanks for the A2A.Ever since the Holy Roman Empire was created by a saxon duke named Otto I as an attempt to revive the old Carolingian Empire founded by Charlemagne, there are numerous times that the emperor tried to centralize the empire from the

Was Kaiser Wilhelm II a bad German leader?

He was a disaster. His incompetence destroyed his empire.Diplomatic failureBismarck left 2 advices to his successors:- There are 5 major states in Europe. Always make sure that you belong to the side that consists of 3 states.- Always be on the same side as RussiaAt WWI, Germany started at the worst possible situation. Fighting together with Austria against: GB,

How responsible was the German Kaiser for ruining his country?

One of the major ruinous decisions the Kaiser made was to abandon the diplomatic work of Bismarck on the eastern front to prevent a two-front war. The Reinsurance Treaty was not continued in William II's reign and largely due to his own intention. The other one was the aggressive expansion

How could German Empire (1871~1918) made great achievement in economy, military, science and technology in the absence of democracy?

Regarding matters like social welfare, the German Empire was very progressive. They invented a compulsory health insurance and pension plans for workers. Quite democratic achivements without a democrazy.That leads me to my second point. Yes, the German chancellor could only

What was the relationship between the Kingdom of Bavaria and the German Empire prior to 1918?

Generally one of mistrust or hostility. Bavaria was 'bounced' into the German empire, in lots of ways. Prussia dominated the German empire, and its political leaders were determined that Austria should not be part of the German Reich. Bavarian statesmen argued that Austria should be - after all, they were German speakers too. And importantly

Nazi Germany invaded Europe, but what did Nazi Germany really want?

Said,Nazi Germany or Hitler wanted the whole world, not just Europe. As simple as it sounds, and it was, the times, naïveté, and the horrors of WW1 made it hard for the allies to assume anything like having a backbone.Only Churchill knew what was going on, and when he expressed his views he was called a warmonger, go figure.

Did anything like French Revolution or American Revolution happen in Germany?

Revolutions in the the history of Germany:1848/49: "March Revolution", with the goal of uniting the states of the German Confederation under a democratic system, failed, though it achieved some liberal reforms in some of the German states.1918: "November Revolution", with the goal of overthrowing the German

How to learn German history

I recommend Simon Winder: Germania - A Personal History of Germans Ancient and Modern. I appreciate british historians and this book is realy refreshing. Winder  is the lector of Ian Kershaw and Christopher Clark and loves German history. A very interesting and really entertaining book.

How would WWII have started if Hitler had never been a leader in Germany?

It wouldn'tIt's often said that the WW1 created WW2 but that's incorrect. It's much more exact to say that WW1 created Hitler who created WW2.There was no other politician in Germany who was that radical and that extreme. Without Hitler Germany would've become

Was the German Empire (1871) anti-semetic?

Not as such, no. There were no specific laws (that I am aware of) against Judaism or Jews.Antisemitism was still widespread, though, as nearly everywhere else....I am assuming you are talking about the German Empire that came into being in 1871 - the other one is

What happened to the 170 German prisoners who stayed in Japan after the end of WW1?

During their internment the prisoners formed an orchestra which performed over a hundred concerts between 1917 and 1920, including at nearby Ryōzen-ji.[1][2]On 1 June 1918 the prisoners mounted the first performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in the country. This event is the origin of the popularity

What if Britain had sided with Germany during WW2?

This is of course only alternative history (which means garbage), but it has a historical background. Least in this fairly preposterous scenario. Britain was in the best case could sign a peace agreement and remain neutral.Accessing the tripartite pact would have an impact on what is left of the French (especially the the most modern

What if Islamic empires had conquered Britain, Spain, France, Dutch, Germany?

It did conquer Spain actually! For 7 centuries, until Ferdinand and Isabella kicked them out. Andalusia, 'Al andalus' was prosperous with relatively much religious freedom and acceptances (although Jews and Christians were not allowed to display to much of their faith in the

What was former German Kaiser Wilhelm's opinion of Hitler and the Nazis?

A very good question. Kaiser Wilhelm was first, last, and always a monarchist. No surprised there. He always hoped--even expected--the monarchy to eventually be restored. He felt that the Wiemar Republic was a mistake and

What would happen to Winston Churchill if Nazi Germany successfully invaded the UK and won WWII?

Of all the people in great Britain faced with nazi occupation and domination, had hitler the means to get across the channel Winston Churchill is definitely one of those who would have fought until the last bullet or cyanide capsule.He even said he would man a barricade on Whitehall and fire his Thompson until killed.

What would have happened if Bavaria had joined with the Austro-Hungarian empire instead of Prussia?

Thanks for the A2A.The kingdom of Bavaria was allied with Austria during the austro-prussian war as Bavaria wanted to remain independant from the rising influence of Prussia within the german confederation. Bavaria was the second largest german kingdom after Prussia.King Ludwig II of Bavaria spent a lot of government money in building projects like the Neuschwanstein castle which